Production environment is similar to development but it requires Internet access. Most of the production parts can be copied from development and tweaked (such as database and solr schema). Thus the deploy is actually migrating the development setup to production environment.
Solr instance need to be installed separately but the Solr schema can be copied from development. Database setting which points to Solr URL must be modified accordingly.
Database settings which point to URL of external resources must be modified accordingly.
This is optional web server which delegates requests to Tomcat via AJP.
WAR package and database
Those components are precific to a pack as each pack has its own database schema and resources.
Please read the following articles: